Streams

Trematode parasites exceed aquatic insect biomass in Oregon stream food webs

Although parasites are increasingly recognized for their ecosystem roles, it is often assumed that free-living organisms dominate animal biomass in most ecosystems and therefore provide the primary pathways for energy transfer. To examine the …

Temporal shifts in intraspecific and interspecific diet variation among 3 stream predators

Intraspecific variation is increasingly recognized as an important factor in ecological interactions that can exceed the role of interspecific variation. Few studies, however, have examined how variation in intra- and interspecific resource use …

Food-web interaction strength distributions are conserved by greater variation between than within predator--prey pairs

Species interactions in food webs are usually recognized as dynamic, varying across species, space, and time because of biotic and abiotic drivers. Yet food webs also show emergent properties that appear consistent, such as a skewed frequency …

State-structured species interactions and their consequences across levels of biological organization

A central challenge for ecology is to understand the dynamic nature of species interactions. A classic approach to community ecology assumes that individuals within a species are functionally identical and that consumer-resource dynamics can be …

What drives interaction strengths in complex food webs? A test with feeding rates of a generalist stream predator

Describing the mechanisms that drive variation in species interaction strengths is central to understanding, predicting, and managing community dynamics. Multiple factors have been linked to trophic interaction strength variation, including species …

Contributions of parasites to energy flow through a stream food web

Parasites are increasingly recognized for their significant roles in shaping community structure and ecosystem dynamics. Due to their cryptic nature, however, they are often neglected in measurements of energy flow and biomass in ecosystems. Past …

Using Survival Models to Estimate Invertebrate Prey Identification Times in a Generalist Stream Fish

Estimates of predator feeding rates are important for understanding trophic dynamics. One common method for quantifying feeding rates in fishes combines mass‐based diet data with gastric evacuation times to estimate prey mass consumed per predator. …

Competitive mechanisms underlying the displacement of native crayfish by non-native crayfish

Invasive species are one of the greatest threats to biodiversity around the world. Although a seemingly harmless act, species introduction into a new ecosystem can have detrimental effects. Once introduced, invasive species may disrupt the existing …

Using the functional response of a consumer to predict biotic resistance to invasive prey

Predators sometimes provide biotic resistance against invasions by nonnative prey. Understanding and predicting the strength of biotic resistance remains a key challenge in invasion biology. A predator's functional response to nonnative prey may …

Nestedness patterns and the dual nature of community reassembly in California streams: a multivariate permutation-based approach

Many factors contribute to the nonrandom processes of extinctions and invasions that are changing the structure of ecological communities worldwide. These factors include the attributes of the species, their abiotic environment, and the interactions …