Higher-order effects

Hidden layers of density dependence in consumer feeding rates

Functional responses relate a consumer's feeding rates to variation in its abiotic and biotic environment, providing insight into consumer behaviour and fitness, and underpinning population and food‐web dynamics. Despite their broad relevance and …

Experimental demonstration of a trophic cascade in the Galápagos rocky subtidal: Effects of consumer identity and behavior

In diverse tropical webs, trophic cascades are presumed to be rare, as species interactions may dampen top-down control and reduce their prevalence. To test this hypothesis, we used an open experimental design in the Galápagos rocky subtidal that …

Quantifying predator dependence in the functional response of generalist predators

A long‐standing debate concerns how functional responses are best described. Theory suggests that ratio dependence is consistent with many food web patterns left unexplained by the simplest prey‐dependent models. However, for logistical reasons, …